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Posts published in November 2017

A bit on SQL Standards

SQL (Structured Query Language) for relational databases was maintained and standardised by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) which is affiliated with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). When a new SQL standard is published by these organisations it is outlined on the ISO…

Relational Database Proprietary Extensions

Standard Query Language – or SQL for short – is a language designed for relational databases that allows end users such as developers and database administrators (DBAs) to manipulate data. Whether that be INSERT-ing, UPDATE-ing, DELETE-ing, SELECT-ing or otherwise ALTER-ing almost any amount of data; SQL provides an effective way…

Entity and Referential Integrity in Relational Databases

Data integrity is the overall completeness, accuracy and consistency of data (Techopedia, n.d.). In order to achieve data integrity, it is important to analyse Entity and Referential integrity constraints. Entity Integrity Focuses on Primary keys. Each table should have a primary key and each record must be unique and not…